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Multinuclide Standards

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The nine-nuclide gamma standard, routinely used to establish efficiency curves for gamma spectrometers,
covers an energy range from 88 keV to 1836 keV. As options, Am-241 and/ or Pb-210 can be added to extend
the calibration curve down to 60 keV and 46 keV respectively. IPL offers two nine-nuclide gamma standards. Series 7500 contains Te-123m and Cr-51 for those customers who require a non-mercury containing standard.

Series 7600 contains Hg-203 and Ce-139. Please note that Hg-203 may leach out from polyethylene containers and may contaminate the entire container. Proper handling techniques must be observed. The component nuclides of each series have been chosen to minimize peak interference, and the activity ratios have been selected to yield similar count rates in all major peaks on typical coaxial germanium detectors.

The multinuclide standards are NIST traceable with each component certified with an uncertainty less than ± 5% at the 99% confidence level except for Pb-210 when added. The multinuclide standards are prepared gravimetrically from calibrated solutions and then confirmed using a high purity germanium detector to ensure the highest possible quality. Multinuclide standards are made to order and are available on a year-round basis in a variety of configurations described on pages 22–24. Standards can be supplied for special applications with nuclides, activities, containers and matrices manufactured to customer specifications.

Multinuclide Solutions— 7500 and 7600
Multinuclide solutions are available in 5 mL flame sealed glass ampoules. The nuclide mixture is supplied in
2 M HCl containing the appropriate amount of each carrier to prevent precipitation or adsorption on the glass walls. Additional ampoule sizes can be quoted on request.

Multinuclide Point Standards (GF-ML)
The GF-ML is available in the Type D or Type M configurations. See pages 46 and 48 for technical drawings. Both
have a 1” (25.4 mm) outside diameter with nuclide deposited in the center of each disk. 10 μCi maximum activity for GF-ML-D, and 2 μCi maximum activity for GF-ML-M. Please contact customer service if greater activities are required.

Multinuclide Simulated Charcoal or Zeolite Cartridge (EG-CH-ML)
The activity is uniformly distributed between two polyimide films and placed under the screen of a 1” x 2.25”
(25.4 mm x 57.2 mm) separable plastic charcoal cartridge (surface loaded). This configuration simulates a surface
loaded charcoal cartridge. See page 33 for technical drawing.

Simulated Gas Standards (SGS-ML)

This configuration is available in the 7500 series only. EZIP's’ Simulated Gas Standard is used for the calibration of gamma-ray detectors for the counting of radioactive noble gases. EZIP supplies a uniform, low density foam standard in many configurations. These standards are available on a continual basis. The nuclide combination employed in the Simulated Gas Standard is a nine-nuclide multinuclide gamma standard. Americium-241 and/or Lead-210 can be added to allow efficiency determinations down to 60 keV or 46 keV respectively. See page 20
for more information on our 7500 series nine-nuclide gamma standard. Standard activity is 1-5 μCi (37 kBq-185 kBq) with higher activities on request. Single nuclide standards are also available on request. The foam matrix density range is 0.04-0.4 g/cc. The Simulated Gas Standards are NIST traceable ±5% at the 99% confidence level. Please refer to page 24 for a listing of available beaker sizes.

Planar Multinuclide Calibration Standards

Three large area multinuclide configurations are available. In all cases the active elements are prepared by evaporative deposition.

Ring and Disk (EAB-LB-ML)
EAB-LB disk standards are designed to check the performance and efficiency of low level counting systems
such as proportional counters. The stainless steel disk containing theactive element is surrounded by an aluminum ring which holds the window assembly in place.

Planchet (EAB-PL-ML)
These sources simulate cupped planchet samples and can be used as calibration or performance check standards. 

Filter Paper (EAB-FP-ML)
Filter paper standards are designed to simulate surface smears and thus develop efficiencies for smear
samples of similar construction.

Large Volume Multinuclide Standards (EG-LV-ML) and Multinuclide Marinelli Beaker Standards (EG-LVM-ML)
These configurations provide a convenient method to calibrate HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors, Large Volume Multinuclide Standards (EG-LV-ML) and Multinuclide Marinelli Beaker Standards (EG-LVM-ML). In both series the radioactivity is uniformly dispersed in the matrix. Specify the series, matrix and container type and size. For the Marinelli beakers, specify the detector type. The following are examples of customer-supplied materials that may also be used:
- Soil
- Vegetation/Food Products
- Pulverized Concrete

The LV-ML wide mouth polyethylene sample bottles are available in 250mL, 500 mL, and 1000 mL. Additional
sizes are quoted upon request. Customer supplied containers will be filled upon request.

Series LVM-ML Marinelli beakers, for both HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors, are available in 500 mL, 1000 mL, 2000 mL and 4000 mL sizes. This configuration is useful where maximum efficiency is needed such as environmental
samples. See below for a complete listing of available sizes.

1) Not available with Am-241 or Pb-210 due to attenuation of the gamma emissions from the epoxy and interference of coincidental x-ray emissions from the epoxy matrix with the gamma rays from Am-241.
2) Volumes of 100 mL and above only. Below 100 mL, density cannot be guaranteed.

Planar Multinuclide Calibration Standards (EAB)

Tri-NNuclide Calibration Standards—TN Series

This standard is a multiple energy gamma emitting standard consisting of Sb-125 (T1/2=2.76y), Eu-154
(T1/2=8.59y), and Eu-155 (T1/2=4.85y). It is a relatively long lived gamma standard with many useful calibration
points between 56 keV and 1597 keV. While this standard does have the advantage of a longer useful life span when compared to the ninenuclide mixed gamma standard, there are some disadvantages including cascade summing and spectral conflicts in photopeak emission rates. The Tri-Nuclide Source is available as a nominal activity check source for various gamma energies, or as a NIST traceable gamma efficiency calibration standard in which the activity of each nuclide is certified to within ±5% at the 99% confidence level. The Tri-Nuclide is available in the same configurations as the nine nuclide multiline standard described on page 20.

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